BOROBUDUR AND CETRAL JAVA
Borobudur Temple was built during the golden age of Syailendra Dynasty,
sometime in the beginning of the 8th century.The word Borobudur is believed
to mean monastery on a hill. It is derived from the words baram and
buduhur. Bara is from Sangskrit word Vihara meaning a complex of temples
monasteries or dormitories, Beduhur is a old Javanese word meaning above.
Borobudur Temple was built on a small hill in the Kedu Basin, a rich,
fertile valley sourrounded by the spectacular volcanoes. To the East
lies Merapi and Merbabu and to the North lies Sumbing and Sindoro.The
unsual jagged Menoreh Hills encircle the temple to South and West. The
temple is also located near the meeting place of two rivers, the Elo
and the Progo, these rivers are believed to be symbolic of Gangga and
Yamuna, two rivers feeding the Indus valley in India. We get a sense
of the grandness of the landscape when we rise to final terrace of the
monument wich opens up into 360 degrees view of the magnificent valley.
The Borobudur Temple building is divided into three worlds according
to Buddhist cosmology:
Kamadhatu (The bottom level of the Borobudur Temple)
The phenomenal world, the world of desires.The reliefs of base level,
Kamadhatu were covered up with an extra wall before they were completely
finished. There are two theories for the additional wall:
1.The entire structure began to slide and needed support.
2.Perhaps the explicit material on the reliefs was considered too revealing
for the young Buddhist initiates.
During the Japanese occupation part of the wall was removed exposing
reliefs from the Karmawinggha, an ancient Tibetan text that discusses
good and bad deeds and their consequences.These oerticular reliefs can
be reviewed on the southeast corner.
Rupadhatu (The Second Level of the Borobudur temple)
A transitional sphere where humans are released from their corporeal
from and worldly concerns.The Rupadhatu begins with the first terrace.
Turning to the left down corridor we see on the main wall reliefs from
the Lalitawistara text, a sanskrit manuscript which depicts Buddha's
life. In brief the story is as follow: Prince Shidarta, the founder
of Buddhism, was born in the Lumbini garden in Nepal. His father was
a great king. His mother, Maya Devi, died a week after his birth. Prince
Sidarta led a very secluded life. When he reached adulthood he married
Princess Gopa. One day he had a vision: he saw four figures that represented
aspect of life he had never experienced or imagined: a blind old man,
a sick man, a died man and a monk. Having experienced this, the Prince
was inspired to leave the palace in search of wisdom. He became Wanapratha
or a hermit wandeder and studied under famous teachers: Brahmani, Rudraka
Aradakalapa and five famous hermits. Despite their teacher he was still
unsatisfied. Prince Sidharta practised his onwn way, that is middle
path or madyamika. Finally he medittated under Boddhi tree in Bodhgaya
town and attained Buddhahood. After his enlightenment he was named Buddha
In the Rupadhatu there are also small Buddha statues in niches in the
balustrades of the four terrace. On the first terrace there are Manushi
Buddhas who have manifested themselves in the world. Each directional
point is protected by a Manushi Buddha: Knakanmuni to the South, Kacyapa
to the West, Cakvanmuni to the East and Maitreya to the North. On the
three highther terrace are Dyani Buddhas or meditative Buddhas. They
can be distinguished from one and other by the position of their hands
referred to as mudra. On the east wall: Buddha Akcobya with his palm
turned down ward calling the spirit of the earth to witness his victory
over evil spirits, and to witness his inner strength (Bhumisparca mudra).
On the South wall: Buddha Ratnasambhawa with his palm open, showing
giving blessing (Wara Mudra). On the north wall: Buddha Amogghasidha
with his raised palm, showing his immunity to danger (Abhwa Mudra).
On the fifth terrace: Buddha Wairocana with a circular finger gesture
which indicated giving instruction with an honest and pure heart. (Witarka
Mudra). In total there are 504 Buddha statues. Buddha wears a cassock
consisting of there part two of wich are visible: an outer garment that
leaves his right shoulder bare and an undergarment that is visible at
Arupadhatu (The third level of Borobudur Temple)
The sphere of Gods the spere of perfection and anlightenment. As we
ascend the monument, reading the stories and climbing the terraces we
will pas six achways. Before the final laevel, The Arupadhatu, we must
pass through a double archway between the third and fourth terrace.
These are called the double gates of Nirwikala. After passing through
these gates our body leaves it corporeal form. Rupadhatu and enters
the world of formeless spirit, Arupadhatu. The Nirwikala is the final
door leading to the supreme final reality of Buddhisme. The most achitecturally
complete archway is found on the side of monument. Once we enter the
Arupadahtu we experdience a more spacious and open feeling, different
from the confining rectangular corridors of the terraces bellow. Before
us are three circulation terraces. Geometrically arranged on terrace
are 72 lattices dagobs (small stupa shaped structures) containing Buddha
Vajrasatwa statues. The philosophy behind these enccased Buddha is complex
and not yet fully undestood. Perhaps the lattice structure representes
a seive-like boundary separating the world of form and that of formelessness.
Notice that the holes on the first two terraces are diamond shaped but
the last terrace hole are square. There is a legend that says if you
can reach in and touch the cloth of the Buddha near the east stairway
whatever you wish will come true. At the entrance of each stairway there
are two mythical lion stautues that serve as guards. No lions ever actually
existed in Java. The symbole of Prince Sidharta's kingdom in Nepal was
Now Borobudur Temple although is not one of the world seven wonders
anymore, but for the Indonesian, especially for Javanese peoples, the
Borobudur Temple is still immortalized as only a great wonder now and
forever as dignity symbole of the javanese civilization
The area of the city is 32.5 km². While the city sprawls in all
directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north,
site of a few buildings with distinctive Dutch colonial-era architecture,
and the contemporary commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows
of sidewalk vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping
street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is
a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of
Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo,
not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta's center is the kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding
the kraton is a densely-populated residential neighborhood that occupies
land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain; evidence of this former
use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined "Water Castle"
(Tamansari), built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the
sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned, and was used for housing
by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in
2004, and an effort to renew the neighborhood around the kraton has
begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja, Yogya, Jogjakarta) is a city in the Yogyakarta
Special Region, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of classical Javanese
fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and
puppet shows. It is also famous as a center for Indonesian higher education.
It was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution
from 1945 to 1949.Lies
18 miles (29km) inland from the southern Java coast and near Mount Merapi
(9,551 feet /2,911m). in 7thcenturythe locality formed part of the Buddhist
kingdom of sailendras, which was contemporaneous with the Srivijaya
Empire of Palembang (Sumatra). It was probably included in the later
Kediri and Singosari Kingdom ruled the region successively. At the end
of the 13th century the Hindu Majapahit Empire rose un eastern Java,
an what is now Jogja passed under its rule.
In the early 16th century, central Java had two Muslim Kingdoms, Demak
and Pajang,wich were incorporated into the powerful Muslim kingdom of
Mataram by Senapati Ingalaga (reigned 1584-1601). The Dutch became established
in the region in 1602. After numerous conflicts, Mataram subdued the
state of Surabaya in eastern Java in 1625 and gained general supremacy
in the territory. In rebellion against Dutch intervention in Javanese
politics, Sultan Hamungkubuwono I moved his court from Kota Gede to
Jogjakarta. In Mataran in 1755 and renamed the town Jogja. The British
captured Jogja in1811,and Sultan Hamengkubuwana II was deposed and exiled.
In 1816 the Dutch repossesed the island of Java and 1830 Dutch colonial
rule was firmly established in the sultanate. After the period of Japanese
occupation during World War II, the Republic Indonesia was formed .
The national capital was removed to Jogja when the Dutch occupied Jakarta
in 1946, it was moved back to Jakarta in 1950 upon independence, an
Jogja was given the status of a special district in the Republic of
Kraton The Jogja's Sultan PalaceThe Sultan's Palace or Kraton, with
its grand and elegant Javanese architecture, lay in the centre of the
city. It was founded by Pangeran Mangkubumi I. He choose the right for
the site of the building, right between Winongo River and Code River
a swamp area that dried up then. The Sultan's Palace stretches from
the north to south. the front yard of the Sultan Palace is called Allun-All;un
Utara ( North Square) and the back yard called Allun-Allun Selatan (South
Square ). The design of this historical building demonstrates that the
Palace, the obelisk (the Tugu, the column) and the mount Merapi positioned
in one line. It is believed that the axis is blessed. In the-old times
Sri Sultan is used to concentrated his mind long this axis before leading
meeting, making decision or giving order to his people.
Each part of the building has its own name. The Palace meeting is called
Pagelaran. It is the place where the formal meeting of the Kratons's
officials are held. Manguntur Tangkil Hall is the place where the Sultan
has his set. This hall is in Siti Hinggil, Siti means ground or land
while Hinggil means high, so it called Siti Hinggil because the place
where it built is higher than any other ground around it. It was once
a tiny island on the swamp. The front gate is called Danupratopo. Two
giants called Gupalo guards it. One is called Cingkorobolo and the other
is Boloupoto. The two statues are perceived may protect the palace from
any harm or evil.The main part of the Sultan is called Purworetno, aplce
where the Sultan performes his duties. beside Purworetno there are twostory
buidings callled Panti Sumbago. This biuding is the Sultan's privates
library. The building wher the the Sultan lives called Gedong Kuning
The palace was founded by the first Sultan, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono
who fathered a line of Jogjakarta kings. Relevant to the name, the Sultan
Palace has its own rules, self-governing systems and traditional custom
that is still preserved up to the present. Lying in the center of Jogja
city, this palace is the main tourist attraction in Jogja. The palace
is now dwelling place of Sultan Hamengku Buwono X who is also the Governor
of Jogjakarta special Region. As the palace of Jogjakarta kings, physical
or non- physical, it has sacred symbol, completed with divinity, value,
culture, philosophy, history and humanity. There are a museum displaying
souvenirs from The Sultan's guests especially from the a board called
Souvenir Museum, as well as a museum of Batik collection and museum
Wayang (puppet). Equally interesting the various forms of traditional
art activities such as shadow puppets shows, classical dances and gamelan
performances are still performed in the court and open to the public.
Know as Pasar Ngasem. It is located at the north side of Taman Sari.
This market provides hundreds type of tropical birds. In Javanese culture,
bird symbolize of men's world. This is why, transaction of birds is
quiet frequent at pasar Ngasem. Birds, which are available at Pasar
Ngasem, are mostly chirping bird, such as perkutut, kenari, etc. Yet,
there is also another species of racing speed flyers such as dove. Thismarket
also provides dogs, rabbits, snakes, and some others pets.
Tamansari Water castle is located on the street about 500 meters south
of Jogjakarta Palace. Tamansari is a park, which once was a recreational
place for the Sultan an the royal family. There were many facilities
built in this complex including a bathing pol, man-made islands, an
artificial lake, and floating mosque. Nowadays this park and castle
is no more than a collection of ruins. Tamansari was built by Sultan
HB I and has functioned as a royal recreational park until The Sultan
HB III period. The remainder of the complex which can be seen are Gapura
Panggung (the main entrance gate on the Eastside), Umbul Kawitan, (bathing
pool), Pamuncar, Gapura Agung (the Western Gate), Sumur Gumuling, Plengkung
Taman Segara, Pulau Kenanga and pulau Panembung.
Batik is an art of painting which technically done by using wax. It
is presumed as non-originally Jogjanese art, since it is also found
in other regions. The oldest batik center is Wukirsari in Imogiri. It
has become a center of batik since Jogja Sultanate (Kraton ) existed
(around 1800s).Classic batik motives were produced here. At this time,
the batik painters are not only producing exclusive batik ordered by
Kraton Family, but also producing batik with traditional motive and
classic color for common people. Batik with painted motives can be found
in Taman Sari batik Center. It is around the remain of rest area of
Kraton family - Tamansari. You can find batik in cloths, table runners,
napkins, decorative painting, etc. Taman sari batik is peculiar, it
has bright color and various motives which totally different from classic
batiks that have flora and fauna motif only. Tamansari Batik has some
motives of Jogja scenery, to include the andong (traditional cart),
Pedi cab, mask, houses, etc
Silver craft had grown since Mataram Islam existed in Kotagede (in 1600s).
At that time, Panembahan Senopati brought the silver and gold craftsmen
from Bali to Kotagede to make a royal decorations and ceremonial equipments.
Silver crafts business had prosperous era during 1930s to 1940s when
some companies got orders from Europe and exported their products to
The Nederland's and others European countries.
This is drama dance has been performed for a very long time, by people
around Prambanan Temple every full moon,. Ramayana is performed without
dialogue, but dance and gamelan accompaniment only. The story was taken
from the relief of Prambanan temple. And now, this ballet is regularly
performed on the grand stage built by government in Prambanan compound
and other place.
The hindu temple Prambananthis magnificent Shiva temple derives it name
from the village where it is located. Locally known as the Loro Jonggrang
Temple, or the temple of the "Slender Virgin", it is the biggest
and most beautiful Hindu temple in Indonesia. Seventeen kilometers east
of Jogjakarta, it is believed to have been built by King Balitung Maha
Sambu in the middle of the ninth century. Its parapets are a domed with
a bas-relief depicting the famous Ramayana Story. The first open air
theatre on the southern side of the temples was built in 1960 and the
new on the western side of the temple in 1988. During full moon evenings
in the month from May to October, the Ramayana ballet is performed right
here. The complex of Prambanan lies among green fields and villages.
It has eight shrines, of which the tree main ones are dedicated to Shiva,
Visnu and Brahma. The main temple of Shiva rises to a height of 130
feet and houses the magnificent statue of Shiva's consort, Durga.
Candi Sewu Plaosan
Candi Sojiwan and Ratu Boko
lied 30 km, northern side of Jogja, when the weather is clear, a spectacular
sight of the panoramic view that covers the surrounding forest of Plawangan
and Kaliurang, and rolling green countryside that fades into distant
misty horizons of the blue Indian Ocean can be seen easily. It is better
to do mount climbing during the dry season (April-September). There
are two paths of mount climbing to the top of Merapi. The easier way
is the north path, through Selo, Boyolali Center Java. The most difficult
path is from Kinahrejo, (9 km from the mountaintop, but you will need
around 8 hours to climb to the top due to difficult path)
the biggest and a most beautiful golf park of 60 ha area with 18 holes,
is a international golf course founded on the slopes of Merapi, with
exotic view to Mount Merapi at 800 m altitude. the atmosphere is very
fresh. Restaurant and fitness centre are also available here.
Dieng plateau lies at 2093 m altitude above the sea level, and about
20kmS.W of Wonosobo. It has a cool climate, in the afternoon the climate
is fresh and will very cold at the night. The average temperature is
15 C, usually it will turn into 0 C or even lower on July and August.
Beside having a beautiful scenery with temples that had built by Caylendra
Dynasty in the mid of 8 century. Once can take Tobacco Walk in Sindoro
Mountain, Wonosobo or Tea Walk in Teh Tembi Plantation , etc. Where
as Wonosobo is a city with a fresh climate in highland which surrounded
by four mountains such as M. Sumbing (3.371m), M. Sindoro (3.162 m),
M Bisma (2.365 m ) and M . Ragajembangan (2.177m). The nature of beauty
can be seen a long the way to the area which has a high frequency of
rain, especially to the north side that can reach up to 1.500 mm per
year. The beauty of Sindoro and Sumbing can be enjoyed in the early
morning from Kledung Pass and Restaurant. Tobacco Walk in Tobacco season
or Tea Walk at Tambi tea plantation can be preserved here in any time.
Candi SukuhThe temple Sukuh is one of the many Hindu relic in Central
Java. Located on western slope of Mount Lawu, 91`0 meters above the
sea level and 7km from Karangpandan. Sukuh was built in the XV century
just before Moslem penetrate throughout the island of java. It is also
usually called "the most erotic temple in the world. Sukuh has
a unique from structure which also shows Indonesia original elements.
more prominent rather then mostly Indian temple elements. It is a holy
structure of building for Siva religion that in Indonesia is a symbolize
by phallus which visualizing in real as a man sex organ. The architecture
alone set Sukuh apart. It is a stepped, truncated pyramid, and it looks
very like the Mayan temple of Yucatan an Guatemala in central America.
The temple is a spiritual monuments with a complete relieves that really
enchanting and rare
The temples were built between AD 730 and 780, except for the first
one encountered along the path leading up to the others, which may be
30 years younger. The mane for the complex is not the original one,
nor it literal count of the structures; the number9 has numerogical
significance in java culture. The temples are more or less evenly spaced
between 100-200 meters apart on individual plateaus or ridges projecting
horizontally from the mountain.
BOKO HARITAGE PARK
At the complex of Ratu Boko heritage site, we can find variety inheritance
of archaeological sites. Every structure is arranged in good harmony
and surrounded by fence. There are many gates connecting the fence completed
with stairs, terrace and trail. Besides those sacred buildings, there
are also other building s like ponds and caves. The name Kraton given
by the local community around that area indicates that Ratu Boko site
was the living area and the center of government as well at that time.
Ratu Boko site was built by Rakai Panangkaran in 792 AD and called Abhayagiri
Wihara. Rakai Panangkaran built Abhayagiri Wihara after resigning from
his throne. He ruled from 764 784 AD and than continued by his successor
who is in fact his son, Rakai Panarabwan. Fifty three year lather (856
AD), the name Ratu Boko had changed into Kraton Walaing which proclaimed
by Rakai Walaing pu Kumbhayoni who recognized as the Vasal King. He
ruled from 856-863 AD and called himself as the descend of Rakai I Hulu.
Some opinion said that the process of renovation could become attraction
for the tourists, because it is a rare occasion for tourists to see
the renovation process lively.
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